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Breakthrough Science

The Discovery of the Atomic Nucleus (3 of 15)



Episode 3 of In Search of Giants: Dr Brian Cox takes us on a journey through the history of particle physics. In this episode we learn how Ernest Rutherford conducted a historical experiment that revealed that most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in a tiny nucleus made of protons and neutrons.

This film is part of a series originally broadcast on Teachers’ TV (

The series was made with the support of The Science and Technology Facilities Council ( – Official UK LHC website for public and schools. – School resources on the LHC, how science works and particle physics.

Films produced and directed by Alom Shaha (

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  1. Anna Carmila Doctor

    November 20, 2014 at 7:05 am

    1XADOCTOR Rutherford, you're the man!

  2. Chummy Enerio

    November 20, 2014 at 2:45 pm

    1XEENERIO: Radioactivity has been really useful 🙂 

  3. Mariam mohamud

    February 5, 2015 at 11:53 pm

    how did discovery of nucleus contribute to science and how did it change the world??

  4. elChris789

    May 3, 2015 at 1:25 am

    aunque no entendi mucho me ayudo, pero tengo que hacer una tarea con esto y es dificil!!!

  5. Rebecca Sparks

    October 5, 2015 at 2:03 pm

    Please correct the closed captions. I have a hearing impaired student and would like to show this video, but many of the captions are nonsensical.
    Thank you.

  6. Angelic Rulona

    November 24, 2015 at 11:21 pm

    1XARULONA: Simply tells us that the answer to the unknown lies on one's perseverance.

  7. Phil Berador

    November 25, 2015 at 4:00 am

    1XABERADOR: It is getting more interesting

  8. Mrs. Chwe

    November 25, 2015 at 5:30 am


  9. Adriely Jann Jumamoy

    November 25, 2015 at 10:30 am

    1XAJUMAMOY- So the correct placement of the electrons around a nucleus cannot be precisely located, but is like a large hamster ball around a little hamster…

  10. Khezia Llutch Paz

    November 26, 2015 at 12:51 am

    1XAPAZ: an insightful video about an experiment suddenly explained that the atom's mass is full of tiny nucleus that is made up of protons and electrons. it is amazing how these little particles are inside the living and non-living organisms, somewhat like planets and space particles in the galaxy, like our body is the milky way and these particles are like the planets and inside these planets are much more "smaller" things

  11. Kris Alecar Danaoto

    November 26, 2015 at 7:59 am

    1XADANAOTO – What more can I say? Sir Rutherford's a brilliant man! Thanks to him, we were able to know about these stuffs.

  12. KIm Vincent Pimentel

    November 26, 2015 at 9:23 am

    1XAPIMENTEL: woaaaaaahhhh

  13. Jillian

    November 26, 2015 at 9:46 am

    1XADESEMBRANA: I know that science is interesting but I never thought it would be this interesting.

  14. 남희정

    November 26, 2015 at 10:22 am

    1XANAM: It's so interesting watching this video 🙂

  15. Jeremy Abanes

    November 26, 2015 at 10:33 am

    1XAABANES: oohh. nucleus is made up two kind of atoooms. hihi

  16. Abbe Gabriela San Juan

    November 26, 2015 at 11:27 am

    1XASANJUAN: I've learned that in 1932, Rutherford and his colleague Chadwick discovered that the nucleus is made up of two particles: positively-charged protons and electricly neutral neutrons

  17. Glydel Micabalo

    November 26, 2015 at 11:36 am

    WOW! JUST WOW! learned a new things from this video 😉

  18. Anna de Pedro

    November 26, 2015 at 11:39 am

    1XADEPEDRO: I enjoyed watching this one 🙂

  19. Kharizza khaira

    November 26, 2015 at 11:48 am

    1XACAADAN: a clearer understanding through this

  20. Keith Balatero

    November 26, 2015 at 12:00 pm

    IXABALATERO: Thanks to you we'e learned a lot of discoveries from your videos!

  21. Imelda Helena Capapas

    November 26, 2015 at 1:07 pm

    IXACAPAPAS: rutherford is so intelligent and wise 🙂

  22. Alesa Sudario

    November 26, 2015 at 1:13 pm

    IXASUDARIO: whoah rutherford is so brilliant!

  23. shennpearl suson

    November 26, 2015 at 1:24 pm

    1XASUSON: This is amazing Ernest Rutherford. Amazing experiment 😀

  24. Header May Carabanes

    November 26, 2015 at 1:24 pm

    IXACARABANES: rutherford is so smart and thanks to him!

  25. Yzander Gillegao

    November 26, 2015 at 1:30 pm

    1XAGillegao: Excellent! Rutherford must have worked a lot to discover what's really in the atom! Thanks to him, now we are enlightened.

  26. sofia librando

    November 26, 2015 at 10:52 pm

    1XALIBRANDO: What a brilliant discovery about the atoms.

  27. Metz Asiñero

    November 26, 2015 at 10:57 pm

    Sir Rutherford is a genius man! Woah

  28. Nikky Guylan

    November 26, 2015 at 11:39 pm

    1XAGUYLAN: As the atom becomes more complicated, it becomes more interesting to study.

  29. remo rafisura

    November 27, 2015 at 12:14 am

    IXA: i learn deep about this experiment. 😀

  30. Mia Lluch

    November 27, 2015 at 2:15 am

    1XALLUCH What brilliant people! These minds are the roots of what we know today. And hopefully, to more discoveries.

  31. Mia Lluch

    November 27, 2015 at 2:17 am

    1XAPANTANOSAS Imagine how fulfilling it is to discover such thing! It's just like magic.

  32. Dea Aniversario

    November 27, 2015 at 2:57 am

    1XAANIVERSARIO: Nice one Sir Ernest Rutherford! 🙂

  33. Shyla Giron

    November 27, 2015 at 3:07 am

    1XAGIRON : interesting discovery !

  34. Princess Herro

    November 27, 2015 at 3:27 am

    1XAHERRO: I've learn a lot ☺️

  35. Niña Jane Galarrita

    November 27, 2015 at 5:53 am

    1XAGALARRITA: Sir Ernest Rutherford, you're a genius!

  36. Rena Bersola

    November 27, 2015 at 6:13 am

    1XABERSOLA- sir Rutherford is such an intelligent man!! 🙂

  37. auli raija

    April 19, 2016 at 12:10 am

    even though he helped make the nuclear bomb

  38. Higgins292

    May 23, 2016 at 7:46 pm

    Jesus you lot, stop licking the guy's arse it's already clean

  39. Princess Bollozos

    July 7, 2016 at 10:51 pm

    CHEM81EF2BOLLOZOS: maka adik siya

  40. Shirogi

    July 8, 2016 at 1:02 am

    CHEM81EF2Gironella: Ernest Rutherford~ Thanks for your huge contribution to the study of atoms!

  41. jetha katarmal

    October 7, 2016 at 6:32 pm

    i just like

  42. Mike Almany

    December 10, 2016 at 3:43 am

    this dude is creepy

  43. Andrew Biller

    July 24, 2017 at 12:19 am

    Keanu Reeves

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Breakthrough Science

Genome Sequencing for Pathogen Discovery – Joseph DeRisi (UCSF, HHMI)




For decades, a strange neurological disease has plagued snakes around the world. The snakes tie themselves into knots, exhibit strange behaviors, and eventually die. In this talk, Dr. Joseph DeRisi describes how his lab uncovered the mysterious agent responsible for this disease, which turned out to be an ancient arenavirus.

About the speaker:
Joseph DeRisi, PhD., is a professor at the University of California, San Francisco, chair of the department of Biochemistry and Biophysics and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. Dr. DeRisi was one of the early pioneers of DNA microarray technology and whole genome expression profiling and is nationally recognized for his efforts to make this technology accessible and freely available. His lab has identified putative disease-causing viruses in a wide variety of animals, including humans. Dr. DeRisi was named a MacArthur fellow in 2004, and was awarded the Heinz Award in 2008 and the John J. Carty Award from the National Academy of Sciences in 2014.

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“Algorand: A Better Distributed Ledger,” with Silvio Micali




Title: Algorand: A Better Distributed Ledger
Date: 10/13/17
Speaker: Silvio Micali

A distributed ledger is a tamperproof sequence of data that can be read and augmented by everyone. Distributed ledgers stand to revolutionize the way a democratic society operates. They secure all kinds of traditional transactions—such as payments, asset transfers, titling—in the exact order in which they occur; and enable totally new transactions—such as cryptocurrencies and smart contracts. They can remove intermediaries and usher in a new paradigm for trust. As currently implemented, however, distributed ledgers cannot achieve their enormous potential.

Algorand is an alternative, democratic, and efficient distributed ledger. Unlike prior ledgers based on “proof of work,” it dispenses with “miners.” Indeed, Algorand requires only a negligible amount of computation. Moreover, its transaction history does not “fork” with overwhelming probability: i.e., Algorand guarantees the finality of all transactions.

Silvio Micali
Faculty at MIT and ACM A.M. Turing Award Winner
Silvio Micali recieved his Laurea in Mathematics from the University of Rome, and his Ph.D. in Computer Science from the University of California at Berkeley. Since 1983, he has been on the faculty of the Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department at MIT.

Silvio’s research interests are cryptography, zero knowledge, pseudo-random generation, secure protocols, mechanism design, and distributed ledgers.

Silvio is the recipient of the ACM A.M. Turing Award (in computer science), the Gödel Prize (in theoretical computer science), and the RSA prize (in cryptography). He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and of the Academia dei Lincei.

Stephen Ibaraki
Venture Capitalist, Serial Entrepreneur, Investor, and Co-Chair of the ACM Practitioners Board
With more than 100 top executive roles, global lifetime achievement and innovation awards and recognitions, a few of executive chairman and serial entrepreneur Stephen Ibaraki’s positions include: Co-Chair of the ACM Practitioners Board; Founding Chair of the Global Industry Council and Vice-Chair IP3 IFIP Board; top 5 blogger IDG-IT World (Canada); Founding Managing Partner at REDDS Venture Investment Partners; Founder of the technology advisory board at Yintech Investment Holdings Ltd.; Founding Chairman for outreach of the UN ITU ICT Discovery Journal; Founding Chair-Moderator/Keynote/Organizer for UN ITU AI events, ITU UN Briefing New York; Founder, Founding Chairman for Outreach, Founding Member of the Steering Committee for the seminal UN ITU AI for Good Global Summit with XPRIZE Foundation; keynote at the International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE Austin USA); Founding Chairman of the Technology Advisory Council Financial Services Roundtable FinTech Ideas Festival (FSR: 92.7 trillion managed assets, 1.2 trillion annual revenue); Invited Advisor to a board within IEEE; 14 Microsoft Most Valuable Professional Global Awards, 3 Global Gold Awards and 3 Founding Fellow Awards. Other roles include nominated Founding Fellow, Past Board Chair and President of the government-chartered Canadian Information Processing Society (CIPS).

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