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Medical Discovery

New Mechanistic Insights into Inflammation Triggered by Invasive Infection

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Sounding the Alarm and Putting Out the Fire: New Mechanistic Insights into Inflammation Triggered by Invasive Infection

Air date: Wednesday, May 30, 2018, 3:00:00 PM

Category: WALS – Wednesday Afternoon Lectures

Runtime: 01:05:18

Description: NIH Director’s Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series

The Lieberman laboratory has been in the forefront of developing RNAi-based therapeutics and using RNAi for genome-wide screening. The lab was the first to demonstrate that siRNAs could protect mice from disease. Dr. Lieberman and her lab developed methods to harness RNAi to inhibit herpes and HIV transmission in animal models. They have developed strategies for cell-targeted RNAi to treat viral infection, immune disease, and cancer. They are currently investigating tumor-targeted siRNAs for immunotherapy to activate tumor expression of neoantigens and avoid autoimmune side effects of checkpoint inhibitors. The lab is also investigating the role of endogenous microRNAs and lncRNAs in regulating cell differentiation and cancer.

In particular, Dr. Lieberman and her colleagues study cytotoxic T lymphocytes and their role in infection and tumor immunity. Her lab investigates the molecular pathways used by killer lymphocytes and their cytotoxic granule proteases (granzymes) and pore-forming proteins (perforin and granulysin) to induce programmed cell death. The lab has defined a caspase-independent programmed-cell-death pathway activated by granzyme A. Recent work has identified an unexpected role for granzymes and granulysin: protecting against bacteria and parasites. Dr. Lieberman and her lab recently uncovered the molecular basis for inflammatory cell death (pyroptosis) triggered by invasive bacteria and other danger signals. They found that the inflammatory caspase-cleaved protein (gasdermin D) causes cell death due to the formation of membrane pores. This mechanism also directly kills the bacteria that trigger the inflammasome. Current work focuses on innate and adaptive immune responses to invasive pathogens, including bacteria, malaria, other parasites, and fungi, including the role of decidual natural killer cells in protection against infection in pregnancy.

This Khoury lecture was organized by NIH scientists to honor the memory of cancer virologist George Khoury, M.D., who was highly regarded as a superb scientist and caring mentor of the postdoctoral fellows in his laboratory. Dr. Khoury, former chief of the Laboratory of Molecular Virology at the National Cancer Institute, was known for his instinctive inquisitive nature, unfaltering kindness, self-giving mentorship, and exceptional science.

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Author: Judy Lieberman, M.D., Ph.D., Chair in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital; Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School

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Medical Discovery

How NeuroTechnology is Changing Our Lives

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Who among us anticipated that in 2015 we would be talking through our steering wheels while driving? From the basic ways we communicate to how we pay bills and make purchases, technology is transforming our lives. Add neuroplasticity, the scientific discovery that our brains change throughout our lives, to the mix, and what lies ahead becomes even more interesting.

Zack Lynch, Chairman and Founder of the Neurotechnology Industry Organization, will present his vision for the future and will moderate a conversation with:

Jen Hyatt, founder of Great Britain’s Big White Wall, a company that provides a 24/7 safe online community of people who are anxious, down or not coping, guided by trained professionals.

Corey McCann, MD, PhD, founder of Pear Therapeutics, a company that combines digital therapies with supplements, medical foods and pharmaceuticals to create more effective treatment solutions.

Jocelyn Faubert, PhD, whose laboratory at the University of Montreal has yielded technologies that led to the launch of CogniSens, a neurotechnology company that specializes in measuring, identifying and improving neurobiological activity, whose practical applications are used for attention training, in the identification of mild perceptual impairment related to a variety of illnesses, and by professional sports teams and elite military forces.

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Medical Discovery

Professor Merryn Tawhai – Digital Breaths: The benefits of bioengineering (2018)

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Royal Society Te Apārangi | 2018 NZ Research Series
Digital breaths: The benefits of bioengineering

An aging population and increase in people living with chronic disease calls for new approaches to reduce healthcare costs and improve patient outcomes. Recent advances in imaging, sensor, and communications technologies, combined with innovative bioengineering approaches, has the potential to revolutionise healthcare. However, does New Zealand have the capability to become a world leader in this industry?

Professor Merryn Tawhai explains how each stage of this multi-disciplinary process, from a science discovery through to the applied science and then clinical research, are each critical to developing both technology and devices that can reduce the burden of chronic disease. Merryn’s own research advances computer modelling of the human lung in search of better methods to diagnose and treat lung disease, particularly in the older generation.

About the speaker:
From a keen interest in biology and mathematics in her youth, Professor Merryn Tawhai is now the Director of the Medical Technologies Centre of Research Excellence (MedTech CoRE) and Deputy Director of the Auckland Bioengineering Institute at University of Auckland.

At the 2016 New Zealand Research Honours, Merryn was awarded the MacDiarmid Medal by Royal Society Te Apārangi for her research to create anatomically detailed models of the respiratory system. The medal is awarded for outstanding scientific research that has the potential for human benefit, and the models created by Professor Tawhai provide new tools for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of lung disease.

This talk was held at Royal Society Te Apārangi in Wellington on Thursday 21 June and was proudly presented in partnership with the Auckland Bioengineering Institute of University of Auckland and the Medical Technologies Centre of Research Excellence (MedTech CoRE).

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Medical Discovery

How to upgrade Ubuntu 16.04 & 17.10 to 18.04 LTS

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Hello everyone,

In this video, you’ll see how to upgrade Ubuntu to 18.04 LTS.
These steps are for Ubuntu 16.04 and 17.10.
The most important thing to do before the upgrade is to backup all the data you have.

Thank you for watching…

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Console commands:

1. sudo apt update

2. sudo apt upgrade

3. sudo apt dist upgrade

4. sudo apt autoremove

5. sudo apt install update-manager

6. sudo do-release-upgrade

7. sudo do-release-upgrade -d

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