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James P. Allison – Jessie Stevenson Kovalenko Medal

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April 29, 2018 – Allison’s pioneering research has had a vast impact on cancer therapy and the evolution of the entire field of cancer immunology. His work has advanced science while improving the health and wellbeing of cancer patients worldwide, a process that continues to this day.

This path began in 1983 when Allison reported on the protein structure of T cell receptor, providing one of the earliest looks at the molecules involved in T cell function. This led to the discovery of two molecules related to the activation of T cells, CD28 and CTLA-4, the second of which functions as an inhibitor that restricts T cell responses. In 1996 Allison showed that blocking CTLA-4 led to tumor rejection in mice. This opened up the field of “immune checkpoint therapy,” a paradigm shift in cancer treatment which targeted the immune system rather than tumors themselves.

After several years of clinical trials, CTLA-4 was approved as a standard treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma. It is currently being tested in several additional forms of tumors and has already benefited the lives of tens of thousands of patients.

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Breakthrough Science

The Ghost Particle || Full Breakthrough Explain in Hindi

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Hello Friends today we are going to talk about Ghost Particle…. Before watch this vedio you shoud know following details about Ghost Particle…

Here’s what you need to know…
1. Ghost particles are high-energy neutrinos, a type of tiny particle
2. They have no electric charge, and nearly zero mass
3. That makes them difficult to track
4. because they rarely interact with their surroundings
5. They simply pass straight through objects – including entire planets
6. Millions of these particles will pass through your body every single second
7. They were first discovered back in 1912 by physicist Victor Hess, as part of cosmic rays
But their exact nature has remained mysterious, because they’re so tricky to capture, and thus to study
8. Neutrinos are sometimes called the “third messenger”, after light protons and gravitational waves
9. These messengers allow energy to be carried across the universe

I hope u like it…

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Breakthrough Science

How big is our planet? – (self experiment) | Breakthrough Junior Challenge 2018

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Is our planet infinitely big? NO, CERTAINLY! Then how big is it ?

Today satellites have enlightened us to get the exact picture of our earth. But 2200 year ago a man called Eratosthenes could find the Circumference of the entire earth using just SHADOW and HIGH SCHOOL MATHEMATICS with an error of less than 1%!!

And yes you can find the circumference of the Earth yourself !!!

Watch the video to learn more.

This is my first attempt in the Breakthrough Junior Challenge.
#breakthroughjuniorchallenge

Please leave a comment if you want to ask any question. Any sort of advice is solely appreciated.

Like and Share if your brain was pleased with the video!!!

Thank you so much for watching!

I wish luck to all the fellow participant out there.

Who is Eratosthenes?
Eratosthenes was a mathematician and the chief librarian of the historic library in Alexandria. Eratosthenes was also termed as Beta, the second Greek letter as he was second best in everything after Archimedes. He developed a way to find prime numbers known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes. Find more of it on the internet.

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picture of Eratosthenes :
picture of new Earth:
Library of Alexandria :

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Breakthrough Science

Cell and genome organization in mitosis, development, and homeostasis

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Cell and genome organization in mitosis, development, and homeostasis

Air date: Wednesday, June 20, 2018, 3:00:00 PM

Category: WALS – Wednesday Afternoon Lectures

Runtime: 01:07:05

Description: NIH Director’s Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series

I began my research career studying how microtubules regulate various cellular processes, especially microtubule assembly, mitotic spindle assembly, and chromosome segregation. As a PhD student in Dr. Berl Oakley’s lab, my study of g-tubulin has inspired me to use biochemical approaches to investigate the mechanism of microtubule nucleation as a postdoctoral fellow in Drs. Bruce Alberts and Tim Mitchison’s labs at UCSF. This has led to the discovery of the g-tubulin ring complex (gTuRC) and the demonstration of its microtubule-nucleating activity from purified tubulins. After establishing my lab, we discovered the role of RanGTPase in regulating spindle assembly in mitosis. Our more recent study of the mitotic spindle matrix has led to the finding that the nuclear lamin-B is part of the spindle matrix. We show that lamin-B plays a role in mitotic spindle morphogenesis and spindle orientation. In recent years, our research has expanded into studying the role of lamins in the interphase nucleus. By analyzing lamin deletions in mice, mouse ES cells, and various Drosophila stem cells, we have shown that lamins play important roles in organogenesis during development. Additionally, we show that lamin-B prevents immunosenescence and system inflammation upon organismal aging by maintaining the heterochromatin in immune organs.

Author: Yixian Zheng, Ph.D., Carnegie Institution for Science

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