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Medical Discovery

Astrocytoma or Oligodendroglioma? Brain tumor precise diagnosis (5)

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Exclusive interview / Dr. Anton Titov MD and Professor Dr. Sebastian Brandner, expert in molecular and genetic brain tumor diagnosis and neurodegeneration.

There are many types of brain tumors. One type is oligodendroglioma, perhaps the more common type of brain tumor. You are applying an advanced molecular analysis in oligodendroglioma that can affect the treatment plan and risk stratification of patients with oligodendroglioma. Please discuss your work in oligodendroglioma research. There are two aspects [of oligodendroglioma work]: One is the research and the other aspect is the diagnostics. First, I would like to focus on the diagnostics. I should say the discovery that a certain chromosomal loss in oligodendroglioma was discovered in early 1990s by Dr. Cairncross, who discovered a co-deletion of two chromosomal arms, 1p, short arm of chromosome 1, and long arm of chromosome 19 are co-deleted in oligodendrogliomas. So subsequently this research expanded and found its way into clinical diagnostics. And we actually picked it up in the last 10 – 15 years when the molecular diagnostics became more important, because the treatment plans depended more on the knowledge of this one 1p / 19q co-deletion. In 2008 an American consortium discovered there’s a mutation in the so-called isocitrate dehydrogenase, IDH, that is mutant in oligodendrogliomas and astrocytomas. A year later this mutation was found also in other type of tumors, like soft tissue tumors and hematological tumors. Shortly after that a team in Heidelberg, led by Dr. Andreas von Deimling, discovered and described very carefully how these IDH mutation relates to astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. What was found subsequently through their studies and many other studies, that the 1p / 19q chromosomal co-deletion always segregates [exists together] with the IDH mutation, whereas another group of IDH-mutant brain tumors, which do not have the 1p / 19q co-deletion, that group is called “astrocytomas”. That’s how we currently understand the pathology and the pathophysiology of those tumors. So there is one common mutation that these tumors have, which is the IDH mutation, and then there’s either the 1p / 19q chromosomal co-deletion in oligodendrogliomas, or IDH loss and p53 mutation in astrocytomas. This is essentially leading to a question: How do we diagnose those tumors? And how does molecular diagnostics contribute to the better, sharper, and more clearly defined diagnosis of those brain tumors? How do we use those biomarkers? We set up 1p/19q molecular test in our department in 2003, and we tested about 10 tumors per year. In 2004-05 we did 20 – 30 1p/19q tests. Then we started optimizing the methodology, we’re doing a PCR-based methodology and we are now providing this service for many departments in the country, for neuropathology departments. On the other hand, neuropathology society encourages to establish this tests locally, because it needs to be available locally, it should be available to patients locally, to pathologists locally, and most major neuropathology centers in the UK have their own neuropathology testing of all those tumors like us. But we provide a very large catchment area in total perhaps 10 to 12 million population through different hospitals that refer materials to us. So we do lots of those tests and we also do these tests in tumors that are expected to be negative – to see how they discriminate between astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.

Medical Discovery

How NeuroTechnology is Changing Our Lives

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Who among us anticipated that in 2015 we would be talking through our steering wheels while driving? From the basic ways we communicate to how we pay bills and make purchases, technology is transforming our lives. Add neuroplasticity, the scientific discovery that our brains change throughout our lives, to the mix, and what lies ahead becomes even more interesting.

Zack Lynch, Chairman and Founder of the Neurotechnology Industry Organization, will present his vision for the future and will moderate a conversation with:

Jen Hyatt, founder of Great Britain’s Big White Wall, a company that provides a 24/7 safe online community of people who are anxious, down or not coping, guided by trained professionals.

Corey McCann, MD, PhD, founder of Pear Therapeutics, a company that combines digital therapies with supplements, medical foods and pharmaceuticals to create more effective treatment solutions.

Jocelyn Faubert, PhD, whose laboratory at the University of Montreal has yielded technologies that led to the launch of CogniSens, a neurotechnology company that specializes in measuring, identifying and improving neurobiological activity, whose practical applications are used for attention training, in the identification of mild perceptual impairment related to a variety of illnesses, and by professional sports teams and elite military forces.

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Medical Discovery

Professor Merryn Tawhai – Digital Breaths: The benefits of bioengineering (2018)

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Royal Society Te Apārangi | 2018 NZ Research Series
Digital breaths: The benefits of bioengineering

An aging population and increase in people living with chronic disease calls for new approaches to reduce healthcare costs and improve patient outcomes. Recent advances in imaging, sensor, and communications technologies, combined with innovative bioengineering approaches, has the potential to revolutionise healthcare. However, does New Zealand have the capability to become a world leader in this industry?

Professor Merryn Tawhai explains how each stage of this multi-disciplinary process, from a science discovery through to the applied science and then clinical research, are each critical to developing both technology and devices that can reduce the burden of chronic disease. Merryn’s own research advances computer modelling of the human lung in search of better methods to diagnose and treat lung disease, particularly in the older generation.

About the speaker:
From a keen interest in biology and mathematics in her youth, Professor Merryn Tawhai is now the Director of the Medical Technologies Centre of Research Excellence (MedTech CoRE) and Deputy Director of the Auckland Bioengineering Institute at University of Auckland.

At the 2016 New Zealand Research Honours, Merryn was awarded the MacDiarmid Medal by Royal Society Te Apārangi for her research to create anatomically detailed models of the respiratory system. The medal is awarded for outstanding scientific research that has the potential for human benefit, and the models created by Professor Tawhai provide new tools for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of lung disease.

This talk was held at Royal Society Te Apārangi in Wellington on Thursday 21 June and was proudly presented in partnership with the Auckland Bioengineering Institute of University of Auckland and the Medical Technologies Centre of Research Excellence (MedTech CoRE).

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Medical Discovery

How to upgrade Ubuntu 16.04 & 17.10 to 18.04 LTS

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Hello everyone,

In this video, you’ll see how to upgrade Ubuntu to 18.04 LTS.
These steps are for Ubuntu 16.04 and 17.10.
The most important thing to do before the upgrade is to backup all the data you have.

Thank you for watching…

Please like and subscribe…

Console commands:

1. sudo apt update

2. sudo apt upgrade

3. sudo apt dist upgrade

4. sudo apt autoremove

5. sudo apt install update-manager

6. sudo do-release-upgrade

7. sudo do-release-upgrade -d

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