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Breakthrough Science

An Illustrated History of Dinosaurs



Our image of dinosaurs has been constantly changing since naturalists started studying them about 350 years ago. Taken together, these pictures can tell us a whole lot about just how much we have learned. Let’s explore the history of dinosaur science as seen through the history of dinosaur art.

Special thanks to these paleoartists for allowing us to use their work in this video:
Greg Paul:
Doug Henderson:
Gabriel Ugueto:
Nobumichi Tamura:
Emily Willoughby:

Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios:

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Owen, R., & Hawkins, B. W. (1854). Geology and Inhabitants of the ancient World (Vol. 8). Crystal Palace Library.
Leidy, J. (1858). Hadrosaurus foulkii, a new saurian from the Cretaceous of New Jersey. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 10, 215-218.
Cope, E. D. (1866). Discovery of a gigantic dinosaur in the Cretaceous of New Jersey. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 18, 275-279.
Marsh, O. C. (1877). Notice of a new and gigantic dinosaur, Titanosaurus. American Journal of Science, (79), 87-88.

Marsh, O. C. (1879). Notice of new Jurassic reptiles. American Journal of Science, (108), 501-505.
Hatcher, J. B., Osborn, H. F., & Marsh, O. C. (1907). The ceratopsia (Vol. 49). US Government Printing Office.
Marsh, O. C. (1877). A new order of extinct Reptilia (Stegosauria) from the Jurassic of the Rocky Mountains. American Journal of Science, (84), 513-514.

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  1. Russell Solomon

    November 5, 2017 at 1:57 am

    I was that kid in Sunday School at that would always ask the teacher, "But what about the dinosaurs?!?"

  2. Mark Duvall

    November 5, 2017 at 2:25 am

    This might be my new favorite episode — great job, everyone!

  3. Vincent Jack

    November 5, 2017 at 5:21 am

    Hey, Mr Hanks is here! 🙂

  4. Vincent Jack

    November 5, 2017 at 5:35 am

    I am sure we will find dinosaurs in other planets if we can travel great distances out there in the Universe.

  5. Fridas Universum

    November 5, 2017 at 11:37 am

    Check out this amazing dino-art done by the swedish artist Simon Stålenhag. He worked with the scientists at the Swedish Museeum of Natural History to draw theese pictures for an exhibition about dinos at the museeum.

  6. Hobgoblin1975

    November 5, 2017 at 4:27 pm

    Thumbs down for having this piece of $ hit as your host.

  7. warhawkjah

    November 5, 2017 at 4:50 pm

    I'm glad I'm not the only one who thought that thing looked like a nutsack.

  8. carsino2001

    November 6, 2017 at 12:23 am

    So basically i learned nothing new becuase we just dont know what they were like making a fact in the present be diffrwnt 20 years from now

  9. Reckless Roges

    November 6, 2017 at 3:10 pm

    11:40 "as long as dinosaurs remain extinct" sounds like someone was been watching a little too much Jurassic Park 😉

  10. spiderlime

    November 6, 2017 at 6:23 pm

    pardon me but since the scientific term dinosaur first appeared in 1840, and the science of paleontology began to be formed in 1790' earlier attempts at figuring out fossils do not nessecarily count as studies of dinosaurs, since nobody knew what they were

  11. Abbie Brockhurst

    November 6, 2017 at 10:19 pm

    My uncle discovered the bone of the smallest dinosaur ever… then kept it in his drawer for years -_-

  12. Laurence Kim

    November 7, 2017 at 1:33 am

    John Gurche FTW.

  13. Lucifer

    November 7, 2017 at 1:00 pm

    I really like this channel.

  14. yeah right

    November 7, 2017 at 2:49 pm

    wtf Hank? what are you doing here?? not that i didnt like the presentation but you know….

  15. thedoctorzeus

    November 7, 2017 at 6:16 pm

    The evolution of dinosaur art is a lie! It's simply artistic adaptation.

  16. Mark DeRidder

    November 7, 2017 at 10:12 pm

    Awesome video! But I feel Jurassic Park should be highlighted for its transformative power on the general public's perception of how dinosaurs looked and moved. Before 1993 I remember thinking t-rex walked upright. The more bird-like postures and movements in JP really made those dinos feel fresh and real to audiences.

  17. Cobalt Dovii

    November 8, 2017 at 12:04 am

    My friend tried to argue with me that non avian dinosaurs never existed because the Bible never mentioned them………… poor brain washed creationist ('_')

  18. david garcia

    November 8, 2017 at 6:19 am

    I…love…this…channel. Avian-Dinosaurs are the only dinos that we can at least see.

  19. From Scratch Aunty Bindy

    November 8, 2017 at 4:16 pm

    I can hear from the ouji board the Dino's shouting "Imagine us complexly god dang it!" Lol
    Loved this epi – thanks guys!

  20. Take 10

    November 9, 2017 at 5:11 am

    That was a great ride! Thanks for the run up though science and art at the same time

  21. Bruno F. Vascontim

    November 10, 2017 at 9:36 pm

    Eons was a great finding, best channel i found in a long time. Awesome video!

  22. Theo Dennis

    November 11, 2017 at 3:33 pm

    6:06 thats the academy of natural sciences in philly, right?

  23. Mike Toth

    November 11, 2017 at 5:40 pm

    when did we realize that dinosaurs were extinct by one big event rather than they being bad at existing gradually

  24. Mario De Martino

    November 11, 2017 at 7:05 pm

    Could you do a video about the speed of dinosaur? Like, how fast did most species of every family moved, what was their stamina ecc. Please i would love you too

  25. Allan Palmer

    November 12, 2017 at 11:35 am

    Owen always is credited as commissioning the statues, but he was 2nd choice to Mantell, who declined the offer to advise the sculptures due to his poor health. Owen, although brilliant, was a con man and a ruthless ass.

  26. R Z

    November 12, 2017 at 8:03 pm

    Never existed

  27. Dang Le

    November 13, 2017 at 7:54 am

    I just found this channel. I've been binge watching like there was no tomorrow. It's like being a twelve year old again

  28. Bojack horseman

    November 13, 2017 at 10:02 pm

    Where could I go to help with this , like on a dig lol

  29. G M

    November 16, 2017 at 8:16 am

    Could you make a video about the fossils found in the Antarctic?

  30. Karter Merrill

    November 20, 2017 at 12:36 am

    I would like to know what was the deadliest dinosaur?

  31. Sourav Sarkar

    November 20, 2017 at 2:52 pm

    At last somebody takes about us …..

  32. William Kirk

    November 22, 2017 at 3:47 am

    Thank you.

  33. Bota Tobias

    November 22, 2017 at 5:44 pm

    In some parallel reality, the things are swapped, and we have all the dinos, trilobites, old mammals, while the pigeon is something like a T-rex in popularity.

  34. Quiz

    November 23, 2017 at 6:13 am

    Really cool series so far. How about doing an episode on the history of fish? They've been here forever and everyone sees them as lesser animals.

  35. Daniel Inskip

    November 23, 2017 at 1:40 pm

    There will always be a little part of them that well just have to imagine for ourselves.

    John Hammond: Hold my beer

  36. Sean Kimiecik

    November 23, 2017 at 11:40 pm

    C'mon PBS, the history of the history of something is called Historiography, don't tell me yr gonna tell me the history of the history of studying dinosaurs. That's the historiography of studying dinosaurs.

  37. Axel Salas

    November 24, 2017 at 5:35 am

    God, I love this.

  38. sofaking onmynuts

    November 24, 2017 at 8:21 am

    The last sentence in the video sums up what we all have in common, imagination.
    Imagination is why most of us are here, when i think about a dinosaur, i see feathers, leathery skin and scales, heck i even see dinosaurs with polka dots because a teacher once said "they could have polks dots." Dinosaurs are a part of our mythology that we can see, study and find in the dirt below us, the very dirt everything we know and love came from.

  39. TheKeithvidz

    November 25, 2017 at 9:11 pm


  40. John von Shepard

    November 26, 2017 at 5:09 pm

    9:09 OMG SPOILER!!

  41. Tiago Martins Lacerda

    November 28, 2017 at 10:23 pm

    Were are the feders?

  42. NerdyGeeky

    December 2, 2017 at 2:10 pm

    These videos are incredibly relaxing

  43. Connor Stein

    December 3, 2017 at 4:25 am

    I love all the feathers honestly

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Breakthrough Science

Fascinating treasures from the tomb of Tutankhamun




People have long been fascinated with the treasures and mysteries around King Tut’s tomb in the Valley of the Kings, Egypt. We take a look at some of the amazing artifacts and a brief history behind their discovery.

Artifacts on display at the California Science Center in Los Angeles, where an exhibition titled “King Tut: Treasures of the Golden Pharaoh” is being held in March and April 2018.

A large flail and a copper Heqa Crook which belonged to King Tut.

The pharaoh’s sarcophagus displayed in Cairo’s Egyptian Museum.

Replica of a sandal found in Tutankhamun’s tomb.

A dagger blade belonging to the pharaoh. Research suggests the iron came from a meteorite, possibly from one found near Mersa Matruh, Egypt.

Breastplate made with gold and lapis lazuli and featuring Isis, Osiris and Nephthys, from the tomb of Tutankhamun.

Several 3,300-year-old jars were found in the tomb of King Tut. These were filled with food, grains, wine and other items the king might need in his afterlife.

Tutankhamun’s golden sarcophagus is displayed at his tomb, in a glass case, at the Valley of the Kings.

The north wall of King Tut’s burial chamber at his tomb.

Tourists look at the tomb of King Tut, which is displayed inside a glass case at the Valley of the Kings.

Ushabti, a funerary statuette in gilded wood, found in the tomb of the king.

A special installer from Egypt places a canopic container in the Denver Art Museum in Colorado, U.S. The artifact was discovered in the king’s tomb.

A funeral mask found in the pharaoh’s tomb.

Archaeologists Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon photographed during the opening of King Tutankhamun’s tomb in the Valley of the Kings in 1922.

The first glimpse of Tutankhamun’s tomb. This was the sight that met the eyes of Lord Carnarvon and Howard Carter when they broke down the sealed doorway which divided the ante-chamber of the tomb and the sepulchral hall.

Workers excavate the pharaoh’s tomb.

An aerial view of Howard Carter’s archaeological excavation of the tombs of Pharaohs Ramesses VI and Tutankhamen in Valley of the Kings.

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Breakthrough Science

Breakthrough in Asymmetric TSP (ft. Ola Svensson & Jakub Tarnawski)




In 2018, the open problem of determining a polynomial-time constant-factor approximation ratio of the asymmetric travelling salesman problem was finally solved by three researchers. Two of them, Ola Svensson and Jakub Tarnawski, are EPFL researchers. They discuss their breakthroughs with us.

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Breakthrough Science

Fossil Ray Discovery




The second associated specimen ever of a fossil ray (Myledaphus Bipartitus) has been discovered in Dinosaur Provincial Park!

Originally published August 26, 2011.

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